When the revolutionary Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) become unveiled at Penn in February 1946, ladies had created the test run that wowed the media. The improvement of the world’s first computer brought about the digital age of smartphones, touchscreens, cellular devices, and electronics nowadays.
But their work and that of four different girls who helped get ENIAC off the floor turned into literally erased. Archival images display males and females working at the massive device, but the articles and pics posted characteristic handiest men. After a successful demonstration at what becomes then Penn’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering, the ladies weren’t invited to a celebratory dinner at Houston Hall.
Thanks to historians, filmmakers, and women in pc technology who seemed to them as function fashions, the “ENIAC Six” received recognition many years later. Kathleen McNulty Mauchly Antonelli, Jean Jennings Bartik, Frances (Betty) Snyder Holberton, Marlyn Wescoff Meltzer, Frances Bilas Spence, and Ruth Lichterman Teitelbaum were inducted into the Women in Technology International Hall of Fame in 1997.
LeAnn Erickson, a Temple University professor and documentary filmmaker featured the ENIAC programmers in her 2010 movie, “Top Secret Rosies: The Female Computers of World War II.”
The movie strains the records of the female “computers”—the term turned into then a name for those who did calculations, no longer the machines that might replace them—who labored on categorized U.S. Army ballistics calculations at Penn throughout World War II. (The name is a play on the traditional “Rosie the Riveter” time period for girls who joined the personnel at some point of the war, regularly taking on men’s jobs.)
Some of them moved from that software to the improvement of ENIAC. It was a missile-trajectory calculation, devised by using Bartik and Holberton, that was the basis for the 1946 demonstration for the press.
The Philadelphia City Council specific Feb. 15 as ENIAC Day in 2011, as a part of the party across the device’s sixty-fifth anniversary.
Another documentary that’s especially about the ENIAC programmers, “The Computers,” was launched in 2015.
Erickson, a professor of film and video production, stumbled into the story whilst operating on another documentary, about Philadelphia’s Mount Airy community. Twin sisters who were part of that documentary, Doris Polsky and Shirley Melvin, had been leafing via vintage photos after they started out speak about how they’d been recruited straight out of the Philadelphia High School for Girls to make calculations for the Army.
With men in demand for army provider, women with an inherent ability for math had been introduced in to calculate the trajectories for bullets and bombs, crucial statistics that changed into then compiled into tables and allotted to the battlefields.
“They were those who were given me started out. They led me to Marlyn Mescoff, and she led me to Jean Bartik, and Jean led me to Kay McNulty Mauchly Antonelli, but Kay died before I should try this interview,” Erickson says. “It was very difficult to find topics who felt like they’d a great enough memory to speak about it.”
To mark ENIAC Day at Penn, “Top Secret Rosies” can be proven on the Penn Libraries’ Education Commons. The unfastened event, which runs from 3 to 5 p.M, may even function other activities, consisting of on-call for sticky label printing.
In the hour-long film, Bartik describes longing to depart her tiny Missouri town and spurning activity gives to grow to be a math teacher as she waited for the danger to return to Philadelphia.
“When they hired me, they sent a telegram and it stated ‘file at once,’ so I was on the Wabash the next nighttime out of metropolis,” says Bartik, who died in 2011.
The preliminary organization did hand calculations and extensively utilized calculating machines, consisting of a differential analyzer, that produced a solution in 15 mins that would take someone forty hours to compute by way of hand. ENIAC, invented by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of the Moore School (now the School of Engineering and Applied Science), turned into proposed to similarly velocity the technique.
The struggle ended earlier than ENIAC turned into finished, even though “Top Secret Rosies” details how the system’s first successful hassle, a calculation critical to the improvement of the hydrogen bomb, was achieved by way of the lady programmers.
The modular pc, which weighed 30 tons, contained 18,000 vacuum tubes and had 5 million hand-soldered joints, paved the way for the computer age. ENIAC was moved to the Aberdeen Proving Ground in 1947, however, 4 of the original forty panels are on display at Penn.
Erickson ended up developing an e-book, “The Computer Wore Heels,” and other educational substances as part of her effort to put in writing the ladies again into the records of early computer systems. (The film is to be had for streaming anytime.)
“It brings records alive whilst you could experience it that manner,” she says. “All of my topics have now passed away. It’d sad to suppose on the only hand which you’re dropping this without a doubt outstanding technology of people, however, on the other hand, I experience clearly thankful that I changed into able to document these tales.”